Glossary of Terms
This glossary of terms contains definitions of commonly used terms on Intel Customer Support.
1U, 2U, 3U, etc. - A rack unit is typically abbreviated to “U” and is a measurement defined as 1-3/4 inches. The height of server equipment is expressed in multiples of rack units. For example, a 2U is 3-1/2” high.
2D/3D Hardware acceleration - The process where the graphics controller computes tasks usually done by the CPU. The process results in lower power consumption, longer battery life, and provides a smoother playback of complex content and CPU headroom for multitasking.
3D XPoint™ Memory Technology - An entirely new class of non-volatile memory that can help turn immense amounts of data into valuable information in real time. With up to 1,000 times lower latency and exponentially greater endurance than NAND, 3D XPoint technology can deliver game-changing performance for big data applications. Its ability to enable high-speed, high-capacity data storage close to the processor creates new possibilities for system architects and promises to enable entirely new applications.
802.11 - A set of standards for communicating with computers that are part of a wireless LAN. You may see IEEE in front of 802.11. This stands for the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Standards are 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n.
AA# - Altered assembly number (AA#) is the part number for a motherboard and all its attached components.
AC '97 - Audio Codec '97 (AC '97) is a specification for a high quality, 16-bit or 20-bit audio architecture used in many desktop systems.
Access point - Stand-alone Wi-Fi hub that allows any computer with a Wi-Fi network adapter to communicate with another computer and connect to the Internet. This device is typically used in an enterprise environment with a large number of users.
AC/DC power adapter - A device that converts AC power (electrical outlet power) to DC power (battery power).
ACPI - Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) is a specification for power management.
Adapter - A device used to connect two different components by matching the physical or electrical characteristics of each component.
Ad hoc network - A communication configuration in which every computer has the same capabilities. Any computer can initiate a communication session. Also known as a peer-to-peer or computer-to-computer network.
AES - Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is a port used to connect a computer graphics card to the motherboard.
AHCI - Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) is a specification that defines communication between a storage controller and Serial ATA hard drives.
Alpha blending - A graphics term where the material property of transparency or opacity is added to an object.
Alpha stippling - A graphics term describing a screen door effect, allowing only partial pixels from the source surface to appear over the destination surface.
Ambient - When referring to temperature, ambient refers to the temperature of the surrounding air.
AMT - Intel® Active Management Technology (Intel® AMT) is a feature of specific Intel® processors. It allows IT to locate, protect, and heal the computer systems on their network.
AP - The access point (AP) is a device that connects wireless devices to another network. For example, a wireless LAN, Internet modem, or others.
API - Application programming interface (API) is an interface that allows two independent computer programs to communicate with each other.
APM - Advanced power management (APM) is an API that enables an operating system to work with the BIOS to achieve power management.
ASF - Alert Standards Format (ASF) is a specification for technologies that allows a computer system to be remotely managed and controlled even if an operating system is not present.
ASIC - Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an integrated circuit customized for a particular use.
Asymmetric mode - This mode is used when only one DIMM is installed or the memory capacities are unequal. Also known as single-channel mode.
ATA - Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) is an interface between storage devices such as hard drives and a computer.
ATAPI - ATA Packet Interface (ATAPI) is a way for CD-ROM devices and tape devices to connect to a computer.
AT form factor - Advanced Technology (AT) form factor is a motherboard form factor with dimensions 13.8”x12”.
ATPO - Assembly Test Process Order (ATPO), is the serial number used to determine if your processor is eligible for a warranty exchange or return.
ATX - Advanced Technology eXtended (ATX) is a motherboard form factor where the motherboard is typically 9.6x12 inches.
Authentication - Verifies the identity of a user logging on to a network. Passwords, digital certificates, smart cards, and biometrics are used to prove the identity of the client to the network. Passwords and digital certificates are also used to identify the network to the client.
AWR – Advanced warranty replacement (AWR) is a limited premium warranty benefit. This warranty is only available to eligible channel program members who purchase qualifying Intel® products sold through Intel® Authorized Distributors in their region. Intel ships replacement products or spare parts to participants in the Intel gold partner or Intel platinum partner program without waiting for the defective part to be returned.
BIOS - Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) is the firmware for a computer. Its main function is to identify and initialize various motherboard components. It also loads and transfers control to a small program that then loads the operating system.
Bit - The smallest unit of memory storage.
Bitmap - A flat 2D picture or a texture map. Most 3D systems can combine 2D bitmaps and 3D objects on the screen.
Bit rate - The total number of bits (ones and zeros) per second that a network connection can support. Note that bit rate varies under software control with different signal path conditions.
Bluetooth® technology - A wireless specification that provides a method for devices such as mobile phones, laptops, computers, and printers to connect and share information with one another over a short-range radio frequency.
BMC – A baseboard management controller (BMC) is a specialized microcontroller embedded in most Intel® server boards. The BMC is the heart of IPMI architecture and provides the intelligence behind intelligent platform management, that is, the autonomous monitoring and recovery features implemented directly in platform management hardware and firmware.
BOC - Boxed order code (BOC) is the product code for a boxed Intel® processor.
Broadband Wi-Fi router - Stand-alone Wi-Fi hub that allows any computer with a Wi-Fi network adapter to communicate with another computer and connect to the Internet. This device is typically used in a home or small office environment with a relatively small number of users.
BT - Bluetooth.
BTX - Balanced Technology eXtended (BTX) is a motherboard form factor where the motherboard is typically 12.8x10.5 inches.
Buffered memory - A type of memory module with a register between the DRAM modules and the system memory controller. Buffered memory is also known as registered memory. It is more stable than unbuffered memory, but also more expensive. Buffered memory is mainly used in servers and workstations.
Byte - A unit of memory storage that is equal to 8 bits.
Cache - A temporary storage area for frequently accessed data.
Certificate - Used for client authentication. A certificate is registered on the authentication server (for example, RADIUS server) and used by the authenticator.
Channel - A marketing term in the distribution chain for selling and delivering a product or service to customers.
Chassis - The framework on a computer that supports its components including the motherboard, hard drives, and memory.
Chipset - The group of microchips on a motherboard that allow all the components to communicate with the processor.
CIR - Consumer infrared (CIR) is an infrared protocol that allows the use of remote control with computers.
Client - A computer or application that remotely accesses a service on another computer (known as a server) using a network.
CMOS - Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) is a type of integrated circuit.
Connector - A device used to carry electrical power.
CPU - Central processing unit (CPU) is another name for a processor.
CPU ID - An earlier revision of utilities such as the Intel® Processor Frequency ID Utility and the Intel® Processor Identification Utility.
CRC - Cycle redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code.
CRT - Cathode ray tube (CRT) is an analog monitor.
CUI - Common user interface (CUI) is a term for the user interface used to manage Intel® Graphics Driver.
DCB - Intel® Data Center Blocks (Intel® DCB) are unbranded, fully validated server building blocks featuring Intel's latest technologies. They are designed to target the needs of specific segments, such as Intel® Data Center Blocks for HPC, Intel® Data Center Blocks for Cloud, and Intel® Data Center Blocks for Business.
DDR - Double data rate (DDR) is a type of memory. Data is transferred on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal.
DDR2 - Double data rate type two memory, double pumps the data bus. DDR2 allows higher bus speed and requires lower power by running the internal clock at half the speed of the data bus.
DDR3 - Double data rate type three is synchronous dynamic random access memory. The voltage is 1.5V to 1.35V.
DDR3L - Double data rate type three is low voltage synchronous dynamic random access memory. The voltage is 1.35V.
sDDR3L-RS - Double data rate type three is low voltage, reduced standby synchronous dynamic random access memory. The voltage is 1.35V & 1.5V.
Density - A measure of the quantity of information bits you can store on a storage medium. Higher density allows greater volumes of data to be stored in the same physical space.
DFP - Digital flat panel (DFP) is a type of video connector for flat panel displays.
DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol that allows a computer to automatically get a network address.
DIMM - Dual in-line memory modules (DIMM) have separate electrical contacts on each side of the module and use a 64-bit data path.
DirectX* - A set of Microsoft* APIs for handling tasks related to games and video.
Discrete graphics - The graphics controller is not built into the chipset but is a separate component.
Dithering - A graphics term where colors are intentionally a mix of adjacent pixels. Dithering is usually needed for 8-bit color and sometimes for 16-bit. It allows a limited color set to approximate a broader range by mixing groups of varying-color pixels in a semi-random pattern. Without dithering, color gradients like sky or sunset tend to show "banding" artifacts.
DIY - Do it yourself (DIY) is doing a task yourself rather than relying on a professional.
DMA - Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computers that allows a device to access system memory without relying on the CPU to transfer the data.
DNS - Domain name system (DNS) is a system that maps domain names such as www.intel.com to IP addresses.
Double-sided - A memory module where DRAM chips are on both sides of the module.
DRAM - Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor in an integrated circuit.
Driver - Software written for a specific operating system and used by that operating system to communicate with a specific hardware device.
DTS - Digital Thermal Sensor
Dual-channel mode - This mode is enabled when the installed memory capacities of both DIMM channels are equal. Also known as interleaved mode.
Dual-core - A processor that combines two independent cores in a single package.
DVI - Digital Video Interface (DVI) is a type of video connector for display devices like flat panel displays.
DVMT - Dynamic video memory technology (DVMT) is a system memory that is dynamically allocated as video memory.
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EAP - Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is an authentication framework. It is often used in wireless networks and defines message formats. EAP sits inside of Point-to-Point Protocol's (PPP) authentication protocol and provides a generalized framework for several different authentication methods. EAP is supposed to head off proprietary authentication systems and let everything from passwords to challenge-response tokens and public-key infrastructure certificates all work smoothly.
ECC - Error-correcting code (ECC) allows data to be checked for errors and corrected when required.
EDID - Extended Display Identification Data (EDID) is data given from a display device to a graphics driver that defines its capabilities.
eDP - Embedded DisplayPort (eDP) is an interface that is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device like a computer monitor or television set.
EEPROM - Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers.
EFI BIOS - Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) BIOS is a newer BIOS specification.
EHCI - Enhanced Host Controller Interface (EHCI) is a high-speed controller standard.
EMI - Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is electrical interference that can interfere with communications.
Encryption Scrambling data so only the authorized recipient can read it. Usually a key is needed to interpret the data.
ENERGY STAR* - ENERGY STAR* is a program run by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy that promotes energy-efficient products.
EOIS - End of interactive support EOIS) means Intel Customer Support Agents no longer respond to telephone, chat, community support forums, or email inquiries for this product. Self-help support is available for the discontinued product through the Intel Customer Support site.
EOL - End of life (EOL) means Intel has discontinued manufacturing this product. No updates to drivers, software, or hardware takes place when a product is in EOL status.
EOS - End of support (EOS) means support for this product is no longer available from Intel.
eSATA - External Serial ATA is an external interface for SATA devices.
ESD - Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the transfer of a static charge between two objects.
EW - Extended warranty.
Express Chipset - Part of the product name for Intel® chipsets like the Intel® G33 Express Chipset.
Express Chipset family - Part of the product name for a group of Intel chipsets that are all in the same family of chipsets (for example, the Intel® 3 Series Chipset family includes chipsets such as the Intel® G33 Express Chipset, the Intel® G35 Express Chipset, and the Intel® P31 Express Chipset).
Fan-heatsink - This solution incorporates active (fan) and passive (heatsink) cooling components. The heatsink provides absorption for the heat and the fan provides the airflow necessary to remove the heat from the processor.
FB-DIMM - Fully buffered dual in-line memory module (FB-DIMM) is a type of computer memory that includes an advanced memory buffer between the memory controller and the memory module; usually used in server environments.
Firmware - A computer program inside a hardware device.
Flash - Flash memory is a type of non-volatile computer memory that can be erased and reprogrammed.
FLOP - Floating-point operations per second (FLOP). A measure of a computer's performance.
Fogging - A graphics term that means adding the effect of density to the atmosphere. Objects farther away from the viewer appears more "cloudy" or "foggy."
Form factor - Form factor is a standard size and shape for a computer motherboard.
FPO - Finished Process Order (FPO), is the batch number used to determine if your processor is eligible for a warranty exchange or return.
FSB - Front-side bus (FSB) is the physical component that carries information between the computer's processor and other components such as system memory.
Gateway - A wireless gateway is a special type of access point that allows wireless network clients to share an Internet connection (DSL or cable modem). Wireless gateways typically include features such as NAT and VPN support, which you may not find in simple access points.
GB - Gigabit (GB) is a unit of memory storage that is equal to 1,024 megabytes (or 1,073,741,824 bytes).
GHz - Gigahertz (GHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000,000,000 cycles per second.
GM - Part of the product name for specific mobile Intel chipsets with integrated graphics.
GMA - Intel® Graphics Media Accelerator (Intel® GMA) is part of the product name for specific graphics controllers such as the Intel® GMA 900.
GMCH - Graphics and memory controller hub (GMCH) is the chipset component that handles communication between the CPU and all other devices.
Graphics controller - A term used to describe the graphics hardware in a computer.
Ground - A return path for electrical current.
GUI - Graphical user interface (GUI) is a user interface based on graphical icons.
Hard drive cache - A temporary storage area on a hard drive.
HD Audio - Intel® High Definition Audio (Intel® HD Audio) is the audio architecture standard that replaces AC '97.
HDCP - High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) is a copy protection scheme to prevent data from being copied or shared illegally.
HDD - Hard disk drive (HDD) is another name for hard drive.
HDMI - High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a digital media interface for consumer electronic devices that allows a single cable to be used for both audio and video.
HDTV - High definition TV (HDTV) is a TV that typically has a higher quality aspect ratio and therefore higher-quality video output than standard TVs.
Header - Data that includes information about the message being transmitted but is not the message itself. For example, in an email, the header might include the sender and recipient email addresses.
Heatsink - An object used to absorb heat from a processor.
HFI - Host Fabric Interface (HFI) is a device that uses an advanced connectionless design to deliver performance that scales with high node and core counts.
Hotspot - An area with wireless Internet access.
HPC - High performance computing (HPC). A supercomputer performs at a higher level of computing performance than a general-purpose computer. Performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS).
HTPC - Home theater PC (HTPC) is a device that combines the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, photo, music playback, and digital video recording.
Hyper-Threading Technology - Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology (Intel® HT Technology) allows different parts of the CPU to work on different tasks simultaneously.
I/O Shield - Input/Output (I/O) Shield is a plate used to cover an opening in the back of a computer.
IA32 - Intel® architecture 32-bit is the 32-bit implementation of the x86 architecture
IA64 - IA-64 often refers to Itanium® architecture. Intel® 64 Architecture is the 64-bit implementation of the x86 architecture.
ICH - I/O Controller Hub.
IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) is another name for ATA.
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an international organization concerned with advancing the theory and practice of technology related to electricity.
iL3 - Instruction Level 3 cache
INF - A text file that contains all the information needed in order to install a piece of software or a driver that controls a hardware device.
Infrastructure network - Wi-Fi network centered around an access point (AP) or broadband Wi-Fi router. In this environment, the AP not only provides communication with the wired network, but also mediates Wi-Fi network traffic in the immediate neighborhood.
Integrated circuit - A semiconductor device that includes many transistors and electrical circuits.
Integrated graphics - The graphics controller is built into the chipset.
Intel® 64 - Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology.
Interference - Anything that alters or disrupts a message as it travels between the sender and the receiver.
Interleaved mode - This mode is enabled when the installed memory capacities of both DIMM channels are equal. Also known as dual-channel mode.
Internet service provider (ISP) - Subscribers obtain access to the Internet from their homes, small businesses, or corporate networks by paying these providers for service.
Interrupt - A signal from hardware or software that indicates that an event needs attention or processing.
I/O Controller Hub - The chipset component that handles communication with components such as the hard drives and communicates with the CPU via the MCH.
IPMI – Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) is an industry standard. It is a set of computer interface specifications for an autonomous computer subsystem that provides management and monitoring capabilities independently of the host system's CPU, firmware (BIOS or UEFI), and operating system.
Jack retasking - The technology that allows audio jack functionality to be reassigned depending on the type of device that is connected.
Jack sensing - The technology that allows an audio controller to detect that a device has been connected to an audio jack.
JEDEC - Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC) is an independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body.
Jumper - A piece of conductor that is used to enclose jumper pins and complete the circuit.
KB - A unit of memory storage that is equal to 1,024 bytes.
L1 cache - The smallest and fastest level of CPU cache and the first level of cache used by the CPU.
L2 cache - Slightly larger and slower than L1 cache and the second level of cache used by the CPU.
L3 cache - Slightly larger and slower than L2 cache and the third level of cache used by the CPU.
LAN - Local Area Network (LAN) is a high-speed, low-error data network that covers a small geographic area such as an office or school.
Latency - Delays in transmitting data between the processor and memory often measured by memory bus clock cycles.
LBA - Logical block addressing (LBA) is a common scheme used for specifying the location of blocks of data stored on computer storage devices.
LCD - Liquid crystal display (LCD) is a type of flat panel display.
Lead-free - Part of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) in the European Union. The directive restricts the use of certain hazardous substances when manufacturing specific electronic or electrical equipment.
LED - Light-emitting diode (LED) is a small light source.
LFP - Local flat panel (LFP) refers to a flat panel display on a laptop computer.
LGA - Land Grid Array (LGA) is a type of packaging with a grid of contacts on the underside of the package.
LOM - LAN on Motherboard
LPDDR3 - Low-power double data rate type three is synchronous dynamic random access memory. The voltage is 1.2V.
LRDIMM - Load Reduced DIMM (LRDIMM) have buffer registers for both address and data between the SDRAM module and the system's memory controller.
LVDS - Low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) is an electrical digital signaling system that can run at very high speeds over inexpensive twisted-pair copper cables. LVDS is used to transport video data from graphics adapters to computer monitors, particularly flat panels in laptop computers.
M.2 SSD - M.2, formerly known as the Next Generation Form Factor (NGFF), is a specification for internally mounted computer expansion cards and associated connectors. It replaces the mSATA standard, which uses the physical PCI Express Mini Card layout and connectors.
MAC address - The media access control (MAC) address of the wireless Ethernet adapter is a unique serial number assigned to the device by the manufacturer. Every wired or wireless network device has a unique MAC address.
MB - A unit of memory storage that is equal to 1,048,576 bytes.
Mbps - Megabits per second, has a transmission speed of 1,000,000 bits per second.
MCH - Memory Controller Hub is the chipset component that handles communication between the CPU, memory, AGP or PCI Express*, and the ICH.
MHz - Megahertz (MHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000,000 cycles per second.
microATX - A motherboard form factor where the motherboard size maximum is 9.6x9.6 inches.
Microprocessor - A processor on a single integrated circuit.Mini-ITX - A motherboard form factor where the motherboard is typically 6.7x6.7 inches.
Mini-PCIe* - Also known as PCI Express* Mini Card, is a form factor developed by PCI-SIG. These cards are typically 30x50.96 mm.
MIP mapping - Viewing a distant texture-mapped object in a 3D world, many texels (texture elements) make up each pixel that you see on the screen. The textures often appear aliased or distorted if point sampling, the most common texture mapping technique, is used. MIP-mapping resolves this by pre-computing (that is, prefiltering) different levels of detail of your texture image. It accesses the appropriate level according to the object's distance from the camera. For example, a texture image that is 16x16 texels has four more MIP-maps at lower resolutions, 8x8, 4x4, 2x2, and 1x1. Bilinear MIP-mapping chooses the closest MIP-map image to your pixel's level of detail. Then, it performs a bilinear interpolation upon that texture image to get the color value for the pixel.
MLC - Multi-level cell (MLC) is a memory element capable of storing more than a single bit of information.
MP - Multiprocessing
Modem - DSL, cable, or other hardware types connected to both the AP/router and external line leading to an Internet Service Provider.
Motherboard - A board to which the primary components of a computer are connected.
mSATA - Mini-SATA is a form factor for SATA devices typically used in laptops or other small form factor systems.
MTBF - Mean time between failures (MTBF) is the average time between system failures.
NAND Flash - A non-volatile computer storage.
NDA - Non-Disclosure Agreement between a customer and Intel.
Network name - Also called an SSID, it identifies your network. The network name is unique and controls access to a given network. The network name can be up to 32 characters and is case sensitive.
NIC - Network interface card (NIC) is a piece of hardware that allows computers to communicate over a network.
Non-volatile memory - A type of computer memory that can retain its contents even when it is not powered on.
Northbridge - Another name for MCH.
NVMe - Non-volatile memory express (NVMe) is an interface that allows host software to communicate with a non-volatile memory subsystem. The interface is optimized for Enterprise and Client solid state drives, typically attached as a register level interface to the PCI Express interface.
ODD - Optical disk drive (ODD).
ODM - Original device manufacturer (ODM) is the company that manufactured a device being sold by another company.
OEM - Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is the company that manufactured a product being sold by another company.
OHCI - Open Host Controller Interface (OHCI) is an interface that allows a USB or FireWire controller to communicate with the operating system.
Open authentication - Allows any device network access. If encryption is not enabled on the network, any device that knows the access point's Service Set Identifier (SSID) can access the network.
OpenGL - Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is a specification that defines an API for writing applications producing 2D or 3D computer graphics.
Optical disk drive - A type of disk drive that uses laser to read and write data.
OROM - Option ROM (OROM) is firmware the system BIOS calls in order to communicate with a hardware device.
OS - The operating system (OS) is the software that manages both the hardware and software on a computer.
Parallel ATA - An IDE standard for connecting storage devices like hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.
PATA - An IDE standard for connecting storage devices like hard drives.
PBA - Printed board assembly (PBA) for server boards and components.
PC - Personal computer (PC) is a computer used by one person at a time.
PCH - Platform Controller Hub (PCH).
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a computer bus that is used to attach devices to a motherboard.
PCIe* - PCI Express* is a specification for computer expansion cards.
Peer-to-peer mode - A wireless network structure that allows wireless clients to communicate directly with each other without using an access point.
Peripherals - A piece of computer hardware added to a computer. it's typically optional and connected externally.
Pixel - A graphics term short for picture element. A pixel is the smallest unit that can be addressed and given a color or intensity. A number of bits (8, 16, 24, or 32) in the framebuffer usually represents the pixel.
Plasma - Plasma display is a type of flat panel display.
PM - Part of the product name for specific mobile Intel chipsets without integrated graphics.
PnP - Plug and play (PnP) allows you to add a device to a computer without needing to reconfigure or install device drivers..
POST - Power-on self-test (POST) is the term for a computer's pre-boot sequence.
Power management - A way for a computer to save power by turning off certain components of the computer when not in use.
Preamble - A term that is used in telecommunications to describe the introduction to a message or header.
Preferred network - One of the configured networks. Networks are listed under Preferred Networks on the Wireless Networks tab of the Wireless Network Connection Properties (Windows* XP environment).
Processor - The computer component that interprets all instructions.
Processor ID - Intel® Processor Identification Utility identifies the processor inside a computer system.
Product brief - A document that provides an overview, benefits, features, and system requirements for a product.
Profile - Data and configuration information that is associated with a wireless network.
Protocol - A set of rules that govern how data is sent over a communications channel.
PSU - Power Supply Unit is a device that provides electrical power.
PXE - Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) is an environment to boot computers using a network interface independent of data storage devices (like hard disks) or installed operating systems.
Quad-core - A processor that combines four independent cores in a single package.
RAID - Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) is a technology that uses multiple hard drives to improve performance and/or protection.
RAM - Random-access memory (RAM) is system memory.
Rendering - A graphics term also known as rasterization. Rendering is the translation of high-level database descriptions to pixels on the screen. It consists of a number of steps, including: Setup, Visibility, Texture Mapping, Shading, and Smoothing.
Registered memory - A type of memory module that has a register between the DRAM modules and the system memory controller. Registered memory, also called buffered memory, is more stable than unbuffered memory, but also more expensive. Registered memory is mainly used in servers and workstations.
RFID - Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a method that stores identification data on objects and uses radio waves to retrieve the data.
RMA - Return material authorization (RMA) refers to the process where the recipient of a product arranges to return a defective product to the supplier for repair, replacement, or credit.
Roaming - The concept of extending service to a geographical location that is outside the geographical coverage area provided by the home network.
ROM - Read-Only Memory is a type of storage where data is permanently stored and cannot be removed. BIOS are stored in ROM.
Router - A device that routes data between different networks.
SATA - Serial ATA (SATA), a successor to ATA. The interface between storage devices (hard drives, optical drives, SSDs) and a computer is a high-speed serial cable.
SCSI - Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and devices like hard drives.
SDRAM - Synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) is a type of memory synchronized with the system bus.
Secure Socket Shell (SSH) – Also known as Secure Shell. SSH is used to log in to another computer (such as an individual cluster machine) for secure remote connectivity.
Server - A computer that performs a service to one or more computers or applications known as clients.
SFX - A form factor for power supplies.
SGX - Intel® Software Guard Extensions (Intel® SGX) is a set of instructions that increases the security of application code and data, giving them more protection from disclosure or modification. Find more information.
Shared key - An encryption key known only to the receiver and sender of data. Shared key is also referred to as a pre-shared key.
SIMM - Single in-line memory modules (SIMM) have redundant contacts on both sides that use a 32-bit data path.
Single-channel mode - Used when only one DIMM is installed or the memory capacities are unequal. Also known as asymmetric mode.
Single-sided - A memory module where only one side of the memory module has DRAM chips.
Single sign-on - Feature set allows the 802.1X credentials to match your Windows log-on user name and password credentials for wireless network connections.
SLC - Single level cell (SLC) is storing 1 bit of information per cell.
S.M.A.R.T. - Self-monitoring, analysis, and reporting technology (SMART) is for hard drives that monitor various reliability indicators to anticipate failures.
SMBIOS - System BIOS (SMBIOS).
SMBus or SMB - System Management Bus is a two-wire bus for lightweight communication (carrying clock, data, and instructions) in a computer motherboard.
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers.
SO-DIMM - Small outline dual in-line memory module (SO-DIMM) is about half the size of a regular DIMM. This memory is often used in small systems like laptops or systems with Mini-ITX motherboards.
Southbridge - Another name for ICH.
SPD - Serial Presence Detect (SPD) is a standardized way to automatically access information about a computer memory module. SPD is a memory hardware feature that makes it possible for the computer to know what memory is present and what timings to use to access the memory.
S/PDIF - Sony/Phillips Digital Interface (S/PDIF) is a standard file format for carrying digital audio signals.
Specular highlighting - Adds the effect of a "hot spot" on an object that corresponds to the shininess of its material.
SSD - Solid-state drive (SSD).
SSID - The service set identification (SSID), also known as the network name, identifies your network. SSID is a unique name and controls access to a given network. It can be up to 32 characters and is case sensitive.
sSpec - The specification number for an Intel® Processor. It is a five-digit alphanumeric number inscribed on the top of the processor. It usually begins with the letter "s." Also referred to as an SL code or SR code.
SWR - Standard warranty replacement (SWR). This warranty service is available to all members of the Intel® Technology Provider Program and non-members. Intel ships out a replacement part on receipt of the non-functional or defective product eligible for warranty service.
System BIOS - Another term for BIOS.
System bus - Another name for front side bus (FSB).
TAC - Thermally Advantaged Chassis (TAC).
TB - A terabyte (TB) is a unit of memory storage equal to 1,024 gigabytes (or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes).
Tcase - Tcase is the temperature measurement using a thermocouple embedded in the center of the heat spreader.
TCC Activation Temperature - Thermal Control Circuit (TCC) Activation Temperature is a temperature where a processor will begin to throttle itself for protection.
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is an Internet protocol that delivers a stream of data from sender to receiver.
TDP - Thermal design power (TDP), or thermal design point, is the maximum amount of power a computer cooling system must dissipate.
TFX - A form factor for a power supply used in a computer case.
Thermally advantaged chassis - An enclosure for computers that can maintain a specific ambient internal temperature with specific Intel® processors.
Thermal solution - The combination of the heatsink and fan used to cool a processor.
TIM - Thermal interface material (TIM) is a paste or a pad applied between the CPU and heatsink. It allows a more complete transfer of heat between the thermal solution and processor.
TjMax or Tjunction Max - TjMax is different than the TCC Activation Temperature. TCC offset represents where the processor starts to throttle, relative to the TjMax value.
Tjunction - Tjunction is synonymous with core temperatures. It is calculated based on the output from the Digital Thermal Sensor (DTS) using the formula:
Tjunction = (Tjunction Max – DTS output)
TPM - Trusted Platform Module (TPM).
TPS - Technical product specification (TPS) is a document that specifies board layout, components, connectors, power, environmental requirements, and other details.
Transistor - A device used in semiconductors to amplify or switch electronic signals.
TRIM - Allows an operating system to inform a solid-state drive (SSD) of the blocks of data that are no longer in use.
UHCI - Universal Host Controller Interface (UHCI) allows USB 1.0 controller to communicate with the operating system.
UI - User interface (UI) is the graphical, textual, and auditory information presented to a user by a computer program. It also presents methods of controlling the program like keystrokes, mouse movements, or touch screen selections.
UNDI - Universal Network Device Interface (UNDI) is an API for network cards.
Unbuffered memory - Memory modules where there is no hardware register between the memory controller and the RAM chips. Unbuffered memory is the opposite of registered or buffered memory, and is usually used in desktop systems.
USB - Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a connectivity specification that allows peripheral devices like scanners, printers, and memory sticks to be plugged into the computer and configured automatically.
VBIOS - Video BIOS.
VCA - Intel® Visual Compute Accelerator.
Verified by Intel® - A program between Intel, ODMs, and laptop component suppliers. Enhances opportunities for customizable build-to-order laptop solutions.
VGA - Video Graphics Array (VGA) is the 640x480 video resolution.
Video BIOS - The BIOS for the graphics hardware.
Virtual Machine (VM) – This is a virtualized server environment on which a guest operating system and associated application software can run.
Volatile memory - A type of memory that requires power to maintain the stored information. When power is off or interrupted, it loses the stored memory.
VRAM - Video RAM is a type of memory used to store the framebuffer for some graphics cards. VRAM is also called video memory or graphics memory.
WAN - Wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a country.
WDDM* - Windows* Display Driver Model (WDDM) is a display driver architecture supported in Microsoft Windows Vista*.
WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an optional IEEE 802.11 feature used to provide data security that is equivalent to that of a typical wired LAN. When WEP is enabled, all stations (clients and access points) are required to have the same WEP key. Network access is denied to anyone who does not have the correct key.
WHQL - Windows* Hardware Quality Labs is a testing process that involves running a set of tests on hardware or software and then submitting the results to Microsoft* for review.
Wi-Fi - Wireless-Fidelity is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance*.
WiMAX - WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access.
Wireless client - The software that controls a wireless adapter.
Wireless gateway - see gateway.
WLAN - Wireless local area network (WLAN) is two or more computers linked together without wires.
WPA - Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is an optional IEEE 802.11 feature used to provide data security that is equivalent to that of a typical wired LAN. It provides stronger security than WEP through enhanced encryption and user authentication.
x86 - An instruction set for one of the most common CPU architectures.
XD bit - Execute Disable Bit.
XD technology - The Execute Disable Bit capability of Intel processors designed to increase overall system security.
XMP - Intel® Extreme Memory Profile is a JEDEC SPD extension for DDR3 SDRAM DIMMs to encode performance memory timings.
XOR - A digital logic gate that implements an exclusive or.
XPDM - Windows XP* Display Driver Model is a display driver architecture supported in Microsoft Windows 2000 and Microsoft Windows* XP (also referred to as XDDM).